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Popular Book, Change Principles Of Problem Formation And Problem Resolution Author Paul Watzlawick This Is Very Good And Becomes The Main Topic To Read, The Readers Are Very Takjup And Always Take Inspiration From The Contents Of The Book Change Principles Of Problem Formation And Problem Resolution, Essay By Paul Watzlawick Is Now On Our Website And You Can Download It By Register What Are You Waiting For Please Read And Make A Refission For You Life has its difficulties aches and pains, disagreements and disputes, disappointments and discomforts So whether or not our lives are satisfying is often a matter of whether we manage life s difficulties constructively or whether we mismanage these difficulties and make them worse This is the starting point of the little book by psychologists Paul Watzlawick, John H Weakland, and Richard Fisch The book basically divides into three parts 1 Describing ways life s difficulties are sometimes mismanaged, thus turning them into full blown problems chapters 3 6 2 Describing ways that people can give up the dysfunctional solutions they ve been practicing, and trade them for different, healthy management of life s difficulties chapters 7 9 3 Real life examples of steps 1 and 2 in action, taken from clinical practice chapter 10.The authors have done a masterful job their examples illustrate their methods, and their methods illuminate the examples The authors often offer suggestions seem appear counter intuitive for instance, while psychologists are often portrayed as seeking the root causes of patients psychological problems in earlier traumatic events, Watzlawick et al actually advise against asking such why questions in certain cases It often happens that webecome aware of the important facts , they write, quoting philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, only if we suppress the question Why page 84 This Don t Ask Why principle comes to the fore in several clinical cases described in Chapter 10 Here s one such case Strange as it may seem, the authors observe, quite a few people seem to enter therapy not for the purpose of resolving a problem and being themselves changed in the process, but instead behave as if they wanted to defeat the expert and presumably prove that their problem cannot be solved page 132 Patients Clients like this will often ask for advice, then immediately reject the advice, pointing to obstacles that prevent them from acting on the good advice Psychiatrist Eric Berne has famously called this the Why Don t You Yes, but Game In response, the authors advise against the time honored exercise in futility of asking why some people should play the game of Help me, but I won t let you Rather, the therapist needs to simply accept the fact that there are such people, and concentrate instead on what they are doingand what can be done about it page 138 I only have one small complaint about this book In the first two chapters, the authors introduce their Theoretical Perspective by drawing on some rather advanced subjects in mathematics Group Theory a domain of Abstract Algebra and Bertrand Russell s Theory of Logical Types a construct of Modern Set Theory Most readers eyes may glaze over at this early point in the book.Since I was a math major in college, though, I found that the authors really didn t need the actual mathematical examples So I might offer a bit of advice to readers who don t want to be distracted by the authors mercifully brief foray into advanced math 1 Whenever the authors talk about groups or group theory, just think of re arranging deck chairs on the Titanic or when a client trades one addiction for another In other words the pieces and faces might change, but not the basic game 2 Whenever the authors talk about the theory of types or meta levels, just think of the client s need to take a step back or take a broader perspective on their problem and the failed solutions they have attempted Aside from that minor quibble, I found this to be an insightful and thought provoking book about a deeply important Life topic. While entrenched in applications and theories of psychology primarily, this book is applicable to any situation or problem that any person experiences and wishes to change The straightforward title indicates what you re going to get a very honest exploration of change, how people go about it, how they fail along the way, and what must be done to reframe their problems and alter their thinking in order to achieve the desired change It takes a lot of real life examples though many are outdated due to the fact this book was originally written in the 70s from history, along with case studies and anecdotes to illustrate the points about how human behavior typically hinders change, and the unique and often unusual methods that can be taken to achieve change in order to eliminate a particular problem or resolve a situation It has practical advice and made me consider the way I approach and handle problems in my everyday life in my work, my interpersonal relationships, and with my own self It s an inspiring read, albeit it dense in places it s really meant as a textbook Totally worth the read. Un manual esencial para el terapeuta abocado a la cl nica del cambio Nada de Psicoan lisis ni cl sico, ni lacaniano, ni cualquier otra escuela m s actual por aqu , sino que se trata de una obra llena de herramientas claras para llevar la terapia por determinados derroteros, aquellos que promocionan el cambio a corto o mediano plazo, con objetivos claramente delineados que proporcionan a los pacientes una hoja de ruta con destino a la vista Supongo que esto ltimo es lo que principalmente me atrae de este tipo de terapias, y por las que intento transitar mi vida profesional como Psic logo los objetivos claros son mensurables y ciertos, con nfasis en el presente para un mejor futuro, en lugar de intentar construir un esqueleto completo a trav s de f siles trabajosamente escarbados.Ciertamente considero que se trata de una obra de cabecera a la que continuar consultando, para una mejor construcci n y desarrollo de mi actividad profesional. O carte despre mecanismele schimbarii terapeutice Detaliaza foarte bine logica terapiilor scurte, prescriptii pentru situatii comune si modalitatile in care putem influenta schimbarea celor pe care vrem sa ii ajutam. This book discusses the questions of persistence and change the actions of humans, the book explain how created problems and conflicts in human life and how to prevent them in advance Shows how often the solutions that we provide to problems become problems themselves, and how to make real changes.Many persons and organizations begin with changes And changes do not succeed the book can assist in understanding what causes this Book describes how to change your way of thinking In a remarkably pervasive way, peppered with wonderful illustrating anecdotes, the authors present a theory of human thinking and acting that has wide applications It is also a beautifully simple theory which is not saying it is simplistic For anyone interested in how organizations, groups, couples, and individuals create, maintain, and hopefully solve problems this is really good book.The authors start with an esoteric theory of groups, classes, games without end, etc., and then move into application through several interesting clinical examples In short, the basic idea is that there are two approaches to change the simplistic, commonsense approach, which often blows up in our faces or a second order type of change where the assumptions around the problem are questioned The most serious difficulties we run into in life require second order change, yet we often chase our tails trying to solve them with commonsense solutions that go nowhere This book is a primer for approaching problems in new ways. It changed my perception of the world it might change yours. My brain hurts, but it s a good thing. A solution may itself be the problem.Change is not only possible, but already seething within the problem situation.Common sense solutions are the most self defeating and sometimes even the most destructive ones.Two questions How does this undesirable situation persist What is required to change it Two types of change One that occurs within a given system which itself remains unchanged first order change and one whose occurence changes the system itself second order change.Change in connection with problem formation and problem resolution second order change.Any aspect of reality derives its substance or concreteness from the existence of its opposite Under Heaven all can see beauty only as beauty because there is ugliness All can know good as good only because there is evil Lao TzuOne of the most common fallacies about change is the conclusion that if something is bad, its opposite must of necessity be good.One cannot obtain full visual perception of one s own body, because the eyes, as the perceiving organs, are themselves part of the totality to be perceived, or, as a Zen master put it, Life is a sword that wounds, but cannot wound itself like an eye that sees, but cannot see itself For the same reason, it is extremely difficult to arrive at a than superficial understanding of one s own culture one has to leave it and then be prepared for a shock when looking at it from the outside from the vantage point of another culture , as all anthropologists and many Peace Corps volunteers know.More and people begin to see that needs to be done More of the same is their recipe for change, and this solution is the problem.Three ways of mishandling a problem 1 Action is necessary, but not taken.2 Action is taken where it should not be.3 Action is taken at the wrong level.If a terrible simplificateur is someone who sees no problem where there is one, his philosophical antipode is the utopian who sees a solution where there is none.It is the premise that things should be a certain way which is the problem and which requires change, and not the way things are Without the utopian premise, the actuality of the situation might be quite bearable.The behavioral effects of paradox e.g Be spontaneous the demand for behavior which by its very nature can only be spontaneous but cannot be spontaneous as a result of having been requested I want you to study I want you to want to study The myth that in order to solve a problem one first has to understand its why is so deeply embedded in scientific thinking that any attempt to deal with the problem only in terms of its present structure and consequences is considered the height of superficiality.What becomes questionable is the question itself.Very few behavioral or social changes are accompanied by insight into the vicisitudes of their genesis.In deliberate intervention into human problems the most pragmatic approach is not the question WHY but WHAT , that is, what is being done here and now that serves to perpetuate the problem, and what can be done here and now to effect a change The causal significance of the past is only a fascinating but inaccurate myth In this case, the only question is the pragmatic one How can desirable change of present behavior be most efficiently produced The past has influence over thre present only by way of a person s present interpretation of past experience.It is precisely this unquestioned illusion that one HAS to make a choice between a and not a, that there is no other way out of the dilemma and blind us to the solution which is available at all times, but which contradicts common sense The formula of second order change is not a but also not not a Not to choose is also a choice.To reframe means to change the conceptual and or emotional setting or viewpoint in relation to which a situation is experienced and to place it in another frame which fits the facts of the same concrete situation equally well or even better, and thereby changes its entire meaning.What turns out to be changed as a result of reframing is the meaning attributed to the situation, and therefore its consequences, but not its concrete facts It is not the things themselves which trouble us, but the opinions we that we have about these things EpictetusThe simplistic but widespread assumption that there is an objective reality somewhere out there, and that sane people are aware of it than crazy ones.Real IS what a sufficiently large number of people have agreed to CALL real except that this fact is usually forgotten the agreed upon definition is reified made into a thing and is eventually experienced as that objective reality out there which apparently only a madman can fail to see.Successful reframing needs to take into account the views, expectations, reasons, premises in short, the conceptual framework of those whose problems are to be changed Take what the patient is bringing to you Reframing presupposes that the therapist learn the PATIENT s language, and this can be done much quickly and economically than the other way around psychotherapy similar to the philosophy and technique of judo the opponent s thrust is not opposed by a counterthrust of at least the same force, but rather accepted and amplified by yieldin to and going with it.Reframing does not DRAW THE ATTENTION to anything does not produce insight but TEACHES A DIFFERENT GAME, thereby making the old obsolete The other now sees something different and can no longer na vely go on playing Spot wrong answers vs Spot wrong questionsFour step procedure to approach a problem 1 Clear definition of the problem2 Investigation of solutions attempted so far3 Clear definition of the concrete change to be achieved the goal4 Formulation and implementation of a plan to produce changeIn order to be solved, a problem first of all has to be a problem.Insomniac by forcing himself to sleep, he his placing himself in a Be spontaneous paradox, and we suggested that his symptom therefore is best approached in a equally paradoxical way, namely forcing himself to stay awake prescribe the symptom make him actively DO it choose to do it, rather than FIGHT IT.Insomniac1 Clear definition of the problem can t sleep2 Investigation of solutions attempted so far try hard to fall asleep3 Clear definition of the concrete change to be achieved the goal fall asleep4 Formulation and implementation of a plan to produce change try hard to stay awake Paradoxical Intention Start with terminology One potential source of failure is inability to present the intervention in a language which makes sense to out client and which therefore makes him willing to accept and carry out the instruction.Grown ups treated as kids1 Clear definition of the problem parents tread adult kids as kids2 Investigation of solutions attempted so far by trying to gain a MINIMUM of dependence they get and of the same impasse 3 Clear definition of the concrete change to be achieved the goal parents tell kids to take care of themselves4 Formulation and implementation of a plan to produce change try to gain a MAXIMUM of dependence on the parents help in the house and financially paying the grocery bills, restaurant visits, Making the Overt CovertAdvertising Instead of ConcealingFear of Public Speaking1 Clear definition of the problem his tension will become obvious and he will be overwhelmed by it in front of the audience2 Investigation of solutions attempted so far tries to pull himself together , to appear relaxed3 Clear definition of the concrete change to be achieved the goal be able to speak publicly4 Formulation and implementation of a plan to produce change instead of trying to CONCEAL his symptom, ADVERTISE it start your speech with the statement to the audience that you are extremely nervous and that your anxiety will probably overwhelm youAdvertisement is the technique of choice when concealment is the attempted solution.The Great Effects of Small CausesTherapeutic intervention must be applied to the solution The simplest way of dealing with people is to tell them they are handsome Why should you change Why should you possibly change Go slow is the paradoxical intervention of choice when praise and optimisim are thought to facilitate progress I don t like to waste my time on losers Perfectionism Procrastination Problem is can t start itSolutions tried try to start a masterpieceSolution Produce something mediocreAnother way set a time limit.The Devil s PactA maneuver which allows the therapist to deal with the dilemma by side stepping it altogether and paradoxically meeting the business of risk head on.Change can be implemented effectively by focusing on minimal, concrete goals, going slowly, and proceeding step by step, rather than strongly promoting vast and vague targets with whose desirability nobody would take issue, but whose attainability is a different question altogether. In questo famoso saggio Watzlawick, John H Weakland e Richard Fish riprendono le idee esposte in Pragmatica della comunicazione e le utilizzano per costruire un modello teorico mirante a descrivere la soluzione dei problemi umani Watzlawick in particolar modo attinge a piene mani a due branche della matematica per enucleare il suo metodo alla teoria dei gruppi esposta nell Ottocento dal geniale matematico variste Galois e alla teoria dei tipi logici di Bertrand Russell La teoria dei gruppi descrive magistralmente l impasse in cui si trova un essere umano imbrigliato in un sistema relazionale disfunzionale Ogni sforzo attuato dall uomo per sfuggire a una situazione simile non fa che rimescolare gli elementi, ma di fatto mantiene invariata la relazione fra essi La teoria dei gruppi descrive le propriet invarianti di cui gode un gruppo di elementi Questo quello che Watzlawick chiama cambiamento di tipo 1, perch l attivazione di determinate regole non fa altro che rimescolare gli elementi preservando l invarianza dei rapporti Questo perch , secondo Watzlawick, nei rapporti umani plus a change, plus c est la m me chose Cosa farebbe un uomo per cambiare una determinata situazione Individuato un problema presunto egli si attiverebbe costantemente per risolverlo, sostenendo un atteggiamento contrario alle forze sprigionate dal problema stesso Un uomo convinto di essere braccato dalla propria moglie che ama imporsi Egli cerca quindi di preservare il suo spazio vitale chiudendosi in s stesso D altro canto la moglie lamenta il fatto che suo marito non esprime liberamente i sentimenti e sembra essere sfuggente Quanto pi l uomo cercher di preservare il suo spazio, tanto pi la moglie si lamenter della chiusura del suo uomo e cercher di attuare la sua personale soluzione quella di stargli addosso sempre di pi In realt esistono problemi che andrebbero risolti, altri che sono frutto di una visione distorta basti pensare alle mete utopiche e altri che non hanno alcuna soluzione e sono connaturati a certe logiche prettamente umane Quest ultima categoria la pi interessante e include per esempio il problema del gap generazionale E naturale che ci siano delle differenze generazionali ed scorretto da parte dei genitori cercare di colmarle Per ogni genitore le nuove generazioni vivono seguendo delle logiche perverse, sono pi irresponsabili e quanto meno il loro mondo incommensurabile con il proprio La visione distorta del genitore cerca di ridurre questa differenza E risaputo come il problema sia dovuto alla differenza generazionale e alla consueta amnesia che affligge molti ragazzi e ragazze ormai cresciuti Cambiano le visioni del mondo e ci si dimentica come si era prima.Il cambiamento di tipo 1 fittizio e inutile come sperare di dare una maggiore accelerazione all auto senza cambiare marcia E necessario un cambio di marcia o cambiamento 2 e per fare ci Watzlawick attinge a piene mani alla teoria dei tipi logici di Russell e Whitehead E necessario distinguere tra un elemento dell insieme e la totalit degli elementi La totalit degli elementi non un elemento dell insieme stesso E la confusione tra elemento e insieme a generare paradossi e fraintendimenti Esiste in pratica una gerarchia dei tipi logici che stabilisce una netta distinzione tra un elemento, un insieme, un insieme di insieme e cos via fino all infinito In un determinato sistema necessaria una metaregola esterna che scardini il sistema stesso Se in molti problemi umani controproducente andare semplicemente nella direzione opposta di essi, una soluzione, suggeriscono gli autori, pu essere quella di somministrare il sintomo In che modo si pu obbligare una persona a cambiare un dato comportamento E sufficiente prescrivergli un comportamento opposto quello cio considerato corretto Fosse stata quella la soluzione, tutti i problemi sarebbero stati risolti gi da un pezzo Per essere duraturi, certi cambiamenti devono essere spontanei, ed noto come la spontaneit di un atteggiamento non possa essere indotta da una semplice prescrizione E opportuno quindi utilizzare delle particolari prescrizioni paradossali, legate doppiamente tali prescrizioni del terapeuta riescono in qualche maniera ad ottenere l effetto voluto sia che il paziente risponda positivamente, sia che rimanga restio al cambiamento Solitamente queste prescrizioni appaiono talmente insensate che i pazienti si sentono disorientati Molte volte la prescrizione pu apparire controproducente e sembra andare persino nella direzione del problema stesso piuttosto che contro di esso E qui che Watzlawick propone la prescrizione del sintomo ordinare al paziente la prosecuzione dei suoi atteggiamenti disfunzionali permette di inquadrare il problema in una luce totalmente diversa Ora il paziente si trova costretto a eseguire spontaneamente un atteggiamento disfunzionale Prima, per , ho ribadito come un atteggiamento spontaneo non possa essere indotto attraverso una prescrizione sarebbe paradossale Questa ristrutturazione del problema mette il paziente in condizioni di ripensare il suo problema La prescrizione esorta il paziente a riprodurre i suoi sintomi a comando e magari in alcune ore della giornata questa nuova realt lo porta irrimediabilmente ad avvertire l assurdit della stessa e ad abbandonare il suo atteggiamento scorretto Il principio del similia similibus curantur il simile va curato con il simile un altra chicca teorica di questo libro stupendo Sostanzialmente un libro complesso che va letto attentamente.